docker usage

| 标签 docker 

0x00 starting

公司准备开容器项目且我被分到了项目组, 但对容器技术一无所知, 所以这个 post 来记录目前工业界主流容器技术 –docker 的实践过程.

0x01 what’s docker?

Docker is the world’s leading software containerization platform.

0x02 why docker?

Docker’s commercial solutions provide an out of the box CaaS environment that gives IT Ops teams security and control over their environment, while enabling developers to build applications in a self service way. With a clear separation of concerns and robust tooling, organizations are able to innovate faster, reduce costs and ensure security.

0x03 docker component

  • client/server: docker 是一个 c/s 架构的服务.server 提供一套完整 RESTful API.
  • image: image 是 docker 创建容器的基础, 相当于源码对于程序.
  • registry: 用来做镜像管理, 相当于源码与 git repo 的关系.
  • containers: 运行起来的实体, 相当于多个程序.

0x04 review container

容器发展到现在逐步进入了标准化过程, 目前有工业界广泛是用的 docker; 还有 coreos 定制的 appc, 目前遵循的 appc 的容器技术有 freebsd 平台的 Jet Pack 和 Linux 平台通过 C++ 实现的 Nose Cone.

0x10 bases usage

这里记录一下 docker 在命令行下面最近基本的用法.

0x11 install & configure

install

fedora24 下面安装如此容易.

# sudo dnf install docker -y
# sudo systemctl enable docker
# sudo systemctl start docker

http proxy1

因为公司网络安全策略所以需要配置代理服务器.

# sudo mkdir /etc/systemd/system/docker.service.d
cat << EOF >> /etc/systemd/system/docker.service.d/http-proxy.conf
[Service]
Environment="HTTP_PROXY=http://username:password@10.0.58.88:8080/"
EOF
# sudo systemctl daemon-reload
# sudo systemctl show --property=Environment docker
# sudo systemctl restart docker

0x12 containers management

create container

运行一个名字叫 sn0rt 的容器且进入 bash.

# sudo docker run -i --name sn0rt -t ubuntu:14.04 /bin/bash
exit

status

查看当前服务器的容器状态.

# sudo docker ps -a
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE               COMMAND                  CREATED             STATUS                          PORTS               NAMES
ca06ea65dda8        ubuntu:14.04        "/bin/bash"              30 minutes ago      Exited (0) About a minute ago                       sn0rt

attach to container

开始曾经停止的容器, 附加上去:

# sudo docker start sn0rt
# sudo docker attach sn0rt

create demon container

# sudo docker run --name sn0rt -d ubuntu:14.04 /bin/sh -c "while true;
do echo hello word; sleep 1; done"
51b1a48d762441717cec525e42022328417f1c5ff9b18c456dbde0a925db7d57
# sudo docker ps -a
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE               COMMAND                  CREATED             STATUS                      PORTS               NAMES
51b1a48d7624        ubuntu:14.04        "/bin/sh -c 'while tr"   10 seconds ago      Up 7 seconds                                    sn0rt

show logs

# sudo docker logs -ft sn0rt
2016-09-09T03:30:47.986708000Z hello word
2016-09-09T03:30:49.233008000Z hello word

exec in container

在容器中运行个非交互式进程后在运行交互式进程.

# sudo docker ps
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE               COMMAND                  CREATED             STATUS              PORTS               NAMES
51b1a48d7624        ubuntu:14.04        "/bin/sh -c 'while tr"   About an hour ago   Up About an hour                        sn0rt
# sudo docker exec -d sn0rt touch /tmp/linux
# sudo docker exec -t -i sn0rt /bin/bash
root@51b1a48d7624:/# ls /tmp/linux 
/tmp/linux
root@51b1a48d7624:/# 

inspect container

获取更多的信息以 json 格式展示, 省略部分以...代替.

# sudo docker inspect sn0rt
[
    {
        "Id": "51b1a48d762441717cec525e42022328417f1c5ff9b18c456dbde0a925db7d57",
        "Created": "2016-09-09T03:28:16.986340741Z",
        "Path": "/bin/sh",
        "Args": [
            "-c",
            "while true;\ndo echo hello word; sleep 1; done"
        ],
    ...
    }
]

stop and remove

不能移除一个在运行的容器.

# sudo docker stop sn0rt
sn0rt
# sudo docker ps
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE               COMMAND             CREATED             STATUS              PORTS               NAMES
# sudo docker rm sn0rt
sn0rt
# sudo docker rm `docker ps -a -q`

0x13 image management

容器镜像的管理, 名字叫法类似于 git.

pull

# sudo docker pull ubuntu:14.04
Trying to pull repository docker.io/library/ubuntu ... 
14.04: Pulling from docker.io/library/ubuntu
Digest: sha256:5b5d48912298181c3c80086e7d3982029b288678fccabf2265899199c24d7f89
Status: Image is up to date for docker.io/ubuntu:14.04

list

# sudo docker images
REPOSITORY          TAG                 IMAGE ID            CREATED             SIZE
test                latest              d373bc5e4a77        20 hours ago        340.4 MB
docker.io/ubuntu    14.04               4a725d3b3b1c        13 days ago         187.9 MB

需要先通过docker login登录 docker.io.

# sudo docker search kali
INDEX       NAME                                                DESCRIPTION                                     STARS     OFFICIAL   AUTOMATED
docker.io   docker.io/kalilinux/kali-linux-docker               Kali Linux Rolling Distribution Base Image      216                  [OK]

remove

# sudo docker images
REPOSITORY          TAG                 IMAGE ID            CREATED             SIZE
test                latest              d373bc5e4a77        20 hours ago        340.4 MB
docker.io/ubuntu    14.04               4a725d3b3b1c        13 days ago         187.9 MB
# sudo docker rmi test
Untagged: test:latest
# sudo docker images
REPOSITORY          TAG                 IMAGE ID            CREATED             SIZE
docker.io/ubuntu    14.04               4a725d3b3b1c        13 days ago         187.9 MB

create(commit)

有几种方法可以创建自己的 image, 这里纪录一下 commit 的使用.

# sudo docker run -i --name sn0rt -t ubuntu:14.04 /bin/bash
root@41f815d96b7a:/# apt-get update -yqq
root@41f815d96b7a:/# exit
# docker ps -a
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE               COMMAND             CREATED             STATUS                      PORTS               NAMES
41f815d96b7a        ubuntu:14.04        "/bin/bash"         4 minutes ago       Exited (0) 12 seconds ago                       sn0rt
# docker commit -m="update finshed" --author="Sn0rt@abc.shop.edu.cn" 41f815d96b7a sn0rt/ubuntu_updated
sha256:92ae626c3fb58ad14b621d831bc8c1529357824ebbbdf1b2b4691b4d9e84814c
# docker images
REPOSITORY                  TAG                 IMAGE ID            CREATED             SIZE
sn0rt/ubuntu_updated   latest              92ae626c3fb5        58 seconds ago      210.1 MB
docker.io/ubuntu            14.04               4a725d3b3b1c        13 days ago         187.9 MB

export

有时候网络不好, 或者某些限制导致你不能通过 pull 来安装 image.docker 提供一个导出的功能可以使用.

# docker save -o kubedns-amd64.tar gcr.io/google_containers/kubedns-amd64

import

上面的导出文件你可以通过下面这个命令把这个文件导入进自己的 docker image.

# docker load --input kubedns-amd64.tar

0x20 dockerfile2

这是另一种构建自己 image 的方法, 也是官方推荐的 (高度可定制).
利用 dockerfile 构建三个 images, 命名为 ubuntu,apache 与 mysql.
其中 apache 与 mysql 基于 ubuntu_updated, 而 ubuntu_updated 是基于 ubuntu:14.04.

ubuntu

基本 ubuntu 镜像做一个 update 操作后 build 一下, 如果不做的话其实 docker 也会帮你缓存,docker 每命令每镜像

FROM ubuntu:14.04
MAINTAINER Sn0rt <Sn0rt@abc.shop.edu.cn>

ENV http_proxy="http://username:password@10.0.58.88:8080/"
ENV https_proxy="http://username:password@10.0.58.88:8080/"

RUN apt-get update -yqq

如果写错了可以修改Dockerfile重新 build, 它会自最近一次正确 image 开始继续 build.

➜  ubuntu docker build -t="sn0rt/ubuntu" . 
Sending build context to Docker daemon 2.048 kB
Step 1 : FROM ubuntu:14.04
 ---> 4a725d3b3b1c
...
Step 5 : RUN apt-get update -yqq
 ---> Running in 91e8e54e3be5
 ---> 8aae246f5e4c
Removing intermediate container 91e8e54e3be5
Successfully built 8aae246f5e4c

mysql

FROM sn0rt/ubuntu
MAINTAINER Sn0rt <Sn0rt@abc.shop.edu.cn>

ENV http_proxy="http://username:password@10.0.58.88:8080/"
ENV https_proxy="http://username:password@10.0.58.88:8080/"

RUN apt-get install mysql-server -yqq
COPY my.cnf /etc/mysql/my.cnf
WORKDIR /root
COPY init.sql init.sql
RUN /etc/init.d/mysql restart && mysql < init.sql

building:

# sudo docker build -t="sn0rt/mysql:v1" .
Sending build context to Docker daemon 7.168 kB
Step 1 : FROM sn0rt/ubuntu
 ---> 8aae246f5e4c
...
Step 9 : RUN /etc/init.d/mysql restart && mysql < init.sql
 ---> Running in 73fd2bc50964
 * Stopping MySQL database server mysqld
   ...done.
 * Starting MySQL database server mysqld
   ...done.
 * Checking for tables which need an upgrade, are corrupt or were 
not closed cleanly.
 ---> 5d3c0a4fa4ed
Removing intermediate container 73fd2bc50964
Successfully built 5d3c0a4fa4ed

apache

利用Dockerfile来安装phpmyadmin.

FROM sn0rt/ubuntu
MAINTAINER Sn0rt <Sn0rt@abc.shop.edu.cn>

ENV http_proxy="http://username:password@10.0.58.88:8080/"
ENV https_proxy="http://username:password@10.0.58.88:8080/"

RUN apt-get install apache2 -yqq
RUN apt-get install php5 libapache2-mod-php5 php5-mcrypt php5-mysql -yqq
COPY dir.conf /etc/apache2/mods-available/dir.conf

ADD phpMyAdmin-4.6.4-all-languages.tar.gz /var/www/html/
WORKDIR /var/www/html/phpMyAdmin-4.6.4-all-languages/
RUN mv * ..

COPY config.inc.php /var/www/html/config.inc.php

ENTRYPOINT ["apachectl"]
CMD ["-X"]

building:

➜  apache docker build -t="sn0rt/apache:v1" .           
Sending build context to Docker daemon 10.38 MB
Step 1 : FROM sn0rt/ubuntu
 ---> 8aae246f5e4c
...
Step 13 : CMD -X
 ---> Running in 45fa01e8ac4c
 ---> 366ef630e06f
Removing intermediate container 45fa01e8ac4c
Successfully built 366ef630e06f

checking history

通过 history 命令可以查看到历史命令.

# sudo docker images                           
REPOSITORY          TAG                 IMAGE ID            CREATED             SIZE
sn0rt/apache   v1                  366ef630e06f        3 minutes ago       324.8 MB
sn0rt/mysql    v1                  5d3c0a4fa4ed        2 hours ago         345.7 MB
sn0rt/ubuntu   latest              8aae246f5e4c        2 hours ago         210.1 MB
docker.io/ubuntu    14.04               4a725d3b3b1c        2 weeks ago         187.9 MB
# sudo docker history sn0rt/mysql:v1
IMAGE               CREATED             CREATED BY                                      SIZE                COMMENT
5d3c0a4fa4ed        20 minutes ago      /bin/sh -c /etc/init.d/mysql restart && mysql   5.252 MB            
92dba0a2acb2        20 minutes ago      /bin/sh -c #(nop) COPY file:77fac40c1774c2ad4   172 B               
c3df7fa0d3d1        20 minutes ago      /bin/sh -c #(nop) WORKDIR /root                 0 B                 
ca7a6756a3c7        20 minutes ago      /bin/sh -c #(nop) COPY file:30489e5e5529ad833   3.506 kB            
d06d1ddad673        20 minutes ago      /bin/sh -c apt-get install mysql-server -yqq    130.3 MB            
91190a6c9e32        22 minutes ago      /bin/sh -c #(nop) ENV https_proxy=http://fnst   0 B                 
7d8936b1f833        22 minutes ago      /bin/sh -c #(nop) ENV http_proxy=http://fnsts   0 B                 
f08d8e1643b3        22 minutes ago      /bin/sh -c #(nop) MAINTAINER Sn0rt <Sn0rt@abc   0 B                 
8aae246f5e4c        48 minutes ago      /bin/sh -c apt-get update -yqq                  22.16 MB            
091e0ec51c90        50 minutes ago      /bin/sh -c #(nop) ENV https_proxy=http://fnst   0 B                 
43bff3143ad4        50 minutes ago      /bin/sh -c #(nop) ENV http_proxy=http://fnsts   0 B                 
913e5f034797        50 minutes ago      /bin/sh -c #(nop) MAINTAINER Sn0rt <Sn0rt@abc   0 B       

using

需要一个前台进程, 如果以 apache 以服务在后台启动的话, 容器会变成退出状态.

mysql

# sudo docker run -d -p 3306:3306 --name mysql sn0rt/mysql:v1 mysqld_safe
b946792318652c2d405406e66fbbaa7472a6a5a8dc281c71abe6fd8651070d46
# sudo docker ps
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE                 COMMAND             CREATED             STATUS              PORTS                    NAMES
b94679231865        sn0rt/mysql:v1   "mysqld_safe"       5 seconds ago       Up 2 seconds        0.0.0.0:3306->3306/tcp   mysql

apache

对外服务提供以一直的 ip 地址 (宿主机器的地址),apache 以前台进程在运行.

# docker run -d -p 80:80 --name apache sn0rt/apache:v1
# sudo docker ps -a
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE                  COMMAND             CREATED             STATUS              PORTS                    NAMES
a478f202f3bf        sn0rt/apache:v1   "apachectl -X"      47 seconds ago      Up 44 seconds       0.0.0.0:80->80/tcp       apache
b94679231865        sn0rt/mysql:v1    "mysqld_safe"       3 minutes ago       Up 3 minutes        0.0.0.0:3306->3306/tcp   mysql

testing

在宿主机器上面进行测试 apache 与 mysql 的端口绑定.

# sudo curl -I localhost
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Date: Mon, 12 Sep 2016 03:23:31 GMT
Server: Apache/2.4.7 (Ubuntu)
X-Powered-By: PHP/5.5.9-1ubuntu4.19
Set-Cookie: pmaCookieVer=5; expires=Wed, 12-Oct-2016 03:23:31 GMT; Max-Age=2592000; path=/; httponly
Set-Cookie: phpMyAdmin=npcfgt7puqs2cmld1ttk2k3naa7pv54a; path=/; HttpOnly
Expires: Mon, 12 Sep 2016 03:23:31 +0000
...
# sudo mysql -u root -p -h 172.17.0.1
Enter password: 
Welcome to the MariaDB monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 3
Server version: 5.5.50-0ubuntu0.14.04.1 (Ubuntu)

Copyright (c) 2000, 2016, Oracle, MariaDB Corporation Ab and others.

# sudo docker logs mysql
160912 03:17:34 mysqld_safe Can't log to error log and syslog at the same time.  Remove all --log-error configuration options for --syslog to take effect.
160912 03:17:34 mysqld_safe Logging to '/var/log/mysql/error.log'.
160912 03:17:34 mysqld_safe Starting mysqld daemon with databases from /var/lib/mysql
# sudo docker logs apache
AH00558: apache2: Could not reliably determine the server's fully qualified domain name, using 172.17.0.3. Set the 'ServerName' directive globally to suppress this message

0x30 dockerhub

测试完成没有问题, 且打算分享你的容器这个时候就可以把它推送到 dockerhub(记得docker login).

# sudo docker push sn0rt/ubuntu
The push refers to a repository [docker.io/sn0rt/ubuntu]
54da5869939f: Pushed 
ffb6ddc7582a: Mounted from library/ubuntu 
344f56a35ff9: Mounted from library/ubuntu 
530d731d21e1: Mounted from library/ubuntu 
24fe29584c04: Mounted from library/ubuntu 
102fca64f924: Mounted from library/ubuntu 
latest: digest: sha256:703fec1e8c32ebc0da29d12be2515f640b9022e45c38df62a48145851ad651b6 size: 1549
# sudo docker search sn0rt/ubuntu
INDEX       NAME                          DESCRIPTION   STARS     OFFICIAL   AUTOMATED
docker.io   docker.io/sn0rt/ubuntu                 1                    

0x40 summary3

  • layer: 初步接触 docker 发现 layer 这样的设计放到环境部署里面非常实用. 但是算不上完全创新, 至少我之前 vmware 有尝试过类似的概念, 我基于虚拟机的某个配置对其进行快照, 然后以快照为基础进行不同的修改, 这样自己用起来是没有太多问题的.
  • dockerfile: docker 官方提供的 dockerfile 组织过于原始, 退回了 shell 部署时代, 而且 dockerfile build 的依赖关系层级划分是通过多个 docker image 来实现的, 这样至少目前可能是需要手工解决依赖 (安装镜像).
  • security: docker 的 Linux 实现依赖于 namespace 与 cgroup,namepsace 本身的安全性 (CVE) 与 cgroup 的颗粒度本身都是不完善的 (cgroup 对网络限制), 从容器中逸出也不是没有可能.
  • performance: KVM 在运行基于模板生成的虚拟机可以合并相同内存的, 容器是共享内核的可以想象一下是节约一点内存;cpu 不需要在 guest 和 host 之间来回切换可能节约一点 cpu 时间.
  • limit: 作为一个软件安全爱好者有时候对 kernel 本身感兴趣, 这时候 docker 就不行了.

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